Azerbaijan National Academy of Science

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After obtaining the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan the Institute of Geography accepted priority decisions concerned two important problems.

  1. Regularity the development of nature of Azerbaijan; study of natural resources and their ecogeographical peculiarities; problems of production, social infrastructure and economic and geographical problems of territorial organization of population; constructive and regional problems of the republic; desertification processes.
  2. Factors causing the level changing of the Caspian Sea and study of its ecological conditions.

For solving there two complex problems the basic direction of scientific activity of the Institute are given below: complex study of regularities the formation, stability and changeability of geographical cover and development in regional scale; reconstruction of natural conditions of past geological periods; estimation of geomorphologic construction of the territory as one of the resourceformig factors; landscape evolution; genesis of climate and its forecasting; methods of struggle with desertification; rational utilization of natural resources; regional forecasting the changes of environment under the influence of global and anthropogenic factors; settling of population of Azerbaijan and territorial organization of production; hydrometeorological conditions of the Caspian Sea; ecogeographical problems.

The scientific-research works are carried out on the study of development of natural, economical and social-geographical processes, their interrelations; regularities the distribution of natural resources, ways of their rational utilization.

A number of scientific problems on the study of biospheric, atmospheric, marine natural resources in the territory of republic, their rational utilization and protection of environment are worked out.

The basic researches on the forecasting of climate, study o hydrometeorological processes, landscape science, geomorphology, palaeogeography, neotectonics, biogeography and Caspian Sea are being continued.

In connection with arising a peculiar need in rational utilization of natural resources of the country after gaining independence the scientific geographical researches carried out at the Institute mainly bear applied character. From this point of view the publication of three-volume monograph titled “Constructive geography of the AzerbaijanRepublic” has an especial importance.

It already five year that the Institute of geography in addition to the plan carries out a scientific-applied work on the theme: “Regional geographical problems of the AzerbaijanRepublic”. In connection with the decree issued by the President of Republic (2004) on the development of regions this theme obtains a greater significance. The elaboration of long-term prognosis the level changes of the Caspian Sea, applied geomorphology, desertification, ecogeography are the most actual research themes. In restoration of the panorama of Baku and reconstruction of Baku Seaside boulevard declared as the National Park were used the data of long-term level forecasting of the Caspian Sea worked out by the collaborators of the Institute of Geography.

The basic scientific researches have been always gained an advantage in mount scientific results were included in the annual report of the NASA.

In 1937 basing on the order of the Central Committee of Azerbaijan dated 1925 and titled “On the study of natural resources of republic and regioning” was organized a sector of Geography in the structure of Azerbaijan branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and by this was laid the foundation of Azerbaijan geographical school, always occupying a particular place in the scientific sphere of the former USSR.

By formation of the given sector the geographical science completed its descriptive function and begins systematic geographical researches in Azerbaijan.

Under the leadership of such great scholars as I.V. Figurovsky, H.A. Aliyev, R.B. Kovalyev and H.B. Aliyev during its eight years activity the researches on physical and economical, soil geography, cartography, seismology and astronomy were carried out in the sector.

In 1945 may 1 on the basis of given sector the Institute of Geography of the Academy of Sciences of the Azerbaijan SSR was organized which H.B. Aliyev director was appointed.

During 60 years activity the Institute, beside H.B. Aliyev, was directed by A.M. Shikhlinsky (1948-1951), A.A. Madatzade (1951-1957), G.K. Gul (1957-1964), S.H. Rustamov (1964-1967), H.A. Aliyev (1967-1988) and B.A. Budagov (1988-2012).

Since July 1945 the departments of physical and economical geography, cartography began to function at the Institute. One of the main themes of researched becomes the geography of mountainous countries.

In spite of that the initial years there was not a single of workers with scientific degree, in 1947 11 workers out of 20 were already candidate of science, and 3 joined the postgraduate studentship.

Taking into account of universality the objects and themes of geographical researches in 1950 the personnel potential in the structure of Institute consisted of 6 departments.

Since 1959 the Centre of Problems of the Caspian Sea has been functioning at the Institute of Geography.

Transaction of the Azerbaijan

Geographical Society




Published in accordance with the resolution of the

Academic  Council of Institute of Geography

named after acad. H.A.Aliyev

 of Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences



B A K U – 2012


Mammadov R.M., d.t.s., correspond. Member of ANAS – editor



Editorial board:

Alizade E.K., d.g.s. -  deputy editor

Tanrıverdiyev Kh.K., d.g.s.                                                                

Khalilov H.A., d.g.s.                                                                     

İmanov F.A., d.g.s.                                                                           

Gashgay R.M., d.g.s.                                                                      

Abdullayev R.S., c.g.s. –  executive  secretary                                    

İsmayılov M.J., c.g.s.                                                                       

Yunusov M.I. c.g.s.                                                                      

Rağimov Kh.Sh., c.g.s.                                                                

Eyyubov N.H., c.g.s.                                                            

Mammedbeyov E.Sh.                                                                        

Pashayev N.A.,c.g.s.                                                           

Ağhakishiyeva G.R., c.g.s.                                                                                        

Ahmadov Z,M, r.w.                                                                         

Ağhayeva R.R., r.w.

 The articles elucidating the latest scientific results of regional-geographical problems of formation, development and structural-territorial organization of modern geosystems have been collected in the XVII volume of the transactions of the Azerbaijan Geographical Society.


 Side by side with intensive development of science and technics, productive forces, speedy growth of population, more enlargement of settling areas, especially cities it is necessary to carry out researches on the directions of efficient use of natural conditions and resources, correct management of ecological potential of the geosystems, protection and optimization of landscape-ecological diversity in order to prevent the negative changes being created in the landscape layer of the Globe. The problems as global warming, climatic changes, destroying of ozone layer, protection of biodiversity and wild nature, growth of ecological tension, depletion of natural resources, food safety, organization of green economy can be solved only by jointly and mutual actions of scientists working hardly in different spheres of science. The importance of geographical researches grows constantly in study of laws of reason-result differentiation on time and space of the given problems and in their prevention. Lately the Azerbaijani geographers-scientists carried out researches on the ecological potential of geosystems, ecological diversity of landscape, landscape planning, town-building, problems of the Caspian Sea ecosystems, estimation of natural disaster risk and safety degree, climatic changes and achieved successful results.

The President of the Azerbaijan Republic I.A.Aliyev in the meeting devoted to the conclusions of social-economic development of the regions in Azerbaijan stressed that in order to achieve sustained development it is necessary to carry out correct specialization for the economic spheres of the regions. And this demands from the geographers to carry out the geographical researches on regional, even territorial level and correct estimation of natural conditions and resources. The specialization of the regions on economic spheres is directly and closely connected with geological and geomorphologic peculiarities, climatic and hydrological conditions, soil-plant cover and social-economic development level of the territory.

Taking into account of this point serious problems fall on the share of geographers-scientists on economic spheres of the regions. Correct organization of the specialization on regions will support the insurance of food safety, reduction of the cost price of product, reliable insurance with raw material of the agroindustrial complexes, reduction of the crop loss in the agriculture, correct directing the investment projects.

From this standpoint the devotion of the following XVII volume of the transactions of the Geographical Society of Azerbaijan to the geographical problems of the regions is not accidental. The collection includes about 70 scientific works devoted to different directly geographical problems. The presented materials are collected in four groups. The changes taking place in natural-territorial complexes, relief, exodynamic processes, soilforming of the regions on the result of anthropogenic influence are widely analysed in the first section.

The scientific and methodological innovations obtained on the basis of modern research ways in hydrology, climatology, social-economic geography, protection of nature and Caspian science sphere are elucidated in the next sections. The materials given in the transaction elucidating the development trends and level of the geographical science in Azerbaijan will give chance to define the directions of perspective scientific studies.

We hope that the XVII volume of the transactions of the Azerbaijan Geographical Society will be highly estimated by the scientific community and specialists as previously published collections.


 R.M. Mammadov,                                                                Corresponding Member of the ANAS, professor                                          Vice-President of the Azerbaijan Geographical Society