After obtaining the independence of the Republic of Azerbaijan the Institute of Geography accepted priority decisions concerned two important problems.
- Regularity the development of nature of Azerbaijan; study of natural resources and their ecogeographical peculiarities; problems of production, social infrastructure and economic and geographical problems of territorial organization of population; constructive and regional problems of the republic; desertification processes.
- Factors causing the level changing of the Caspian Sea and study of its ecological conditions.
For solving there two complex problems the basic direction of scientific activity of the Institute are given below: complex study of regularities the formation, stability and changeability of geographical cover and development in regional scale; reconstruction of natural conditions of past geological periods; estimation of geomorphologic construction of the territory as one of the resourceformig factors; landscape evolution; genesis of climate and its forecasting; methods of struggle with desertification; rational utilization of natural resources; regional forecasting the changes of environment under the influence of global and anthropogenic factors; settling of population of Azerbaijan and territorial organization of production; hydrometeorological conditions of the Caspian Sea; ecogeographical problems.
The scientific-research works are carried out on the study of development of natural, economical and social-geographical processes, their interrelations; regularities the distribution of natural resources, ways of their rational utilization.
A number of scientific problems on the study of biospheric, atmospheric, marine natural resources in the territory of republic, their rational utilization and protection of environment are worked out.
The basic researches on the forecasting of climate, study o hydrometeorological processes, landscape science, geomorphology, palaeogeography, neotectonics, biogeography and Caspian Sea are being continued.
In connection with arising a peculiar need in rational utilization of natural resources of the country after gaining independence the scientific geographical researches carried out at the Institute mainly bear applied character. From this point of view the publication of three-volume monograph titled “Constructive geography of the AzerbaijanRepublic” has an especial importance.
It already five year that the Institute of geography in addition to the plan carries out a scientific-applied work on the theme: “Regional geographical problems of the AzerbaijanRepublic”. In connection with the decree issued by the President of Republic (2004) on the development of regions this theme obtains a greater significance. The elaboration of long-term prognosis the level changes of the Caspian Sea, applied geomorphology, desertification, ecogeography are the most actual research themes. In restoration of the panorama of Baku and reconstruction of Baku Seaside boulevard declared as the National Park were used the data of long-term level forecasting of the Caspian Sea worked out by the collaborators of the Institute of Geography.
The basic scientific researches have been always gained an advantage in mount scientific results were included in the annual report of the NASA.