The center was founded in 1957 with the aim of complex study of the Caspian Sea and rational utilization of its resources. In 1958 the department of “Caspian Sea” was given small tonnage expeditional ship “Truzhenik” by the Institute of Oceanology of the former USSR and it was placed at the Caspian scientific Research Station (CSRS), in Pirallhy Island (now). In September 1966 the Department of “Caspian Sea” was enlarged and transformed into Sector on Problems of the Caspian Sea at the Institute of Geography, Academy of Science of the Azerbaijan SSR. At that time the number of department and laboratory reached to six. The total number of collaborators of the Sector reached to 126 persons. The professional scientific researchers were carried out on hydrometeorology of oil-gas bearing regions of the Caspian Sea – currents, temperature, ice, warm and wind regimes, surface evaporation, radiation and water balances. The research works were devoted mainly to the study of influence of level sinking of the Caspian Sea on the fishery, marine transport and oil industry. Then a number of serious works on the studying of ecological conditions of Baku bay, dynamics of Caspian coasts and turbulent- convective exchange were carried out. Bringing the Sector to the International Geophysical Programme, carrying out the measuring of age old sizes and creating of scientific data bank are of very interesting moments. The data net was alike a whole institute, but it had not an official status. In 1971 within the frames of Programme of UNEP of the UNO began the realization of international project “Investigation of Global Atmospheric Processes”. Within the frame of the programme in 1972 as a result of joint forces the Institute of Geography of the Azerbaijan AS, Institute of Oceanology and Atmosphere of the USSR AS and Institute of Radiophysics of the Ukraine AS was created a marine observatory on stationary basis in the open part of the Caspian Sea for the first time in the world.
For carrying out the planned scientific research works were drawn in the going specialists will physico-mathematical and technical bias. So, a new period began in investigation of the Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan. The works in marine observatory were devoted to the study of interactions of atmosphere and sea wave and wind regimes; investigation of turbulence and eddy diffusion by the help of static and spectral methods; working out their result by polyemppric models.
At present 24 collaborators works at the department, 21 of which are scientific workers, 1 doctor of sciences, 1 corresponding member of the ANAS, 4 candidates of sciences. Since 1989 the department in headed by corresponding member R.M. Mammadov.
Hydrology of the Caspian Sea, Meteorology, problem of level fluctuation, dynamics and geomorphology of coasts, ecological state and conditions.
Revealing the regime of pollution sources of the Azerbaijan zone of Caspia, study the influence of morphometric and hydro meteorological factors on their distribution, creation of complex physico-geographical model their distribution in Caspia, change in space and in time of surface waves and drive in-drive away processes, investigation of the geomorphology of coasts and bottom of Caspia.
Studied the statistic and spectral characteristics of large-scale marine turbulence in the open part of the Caspian Sea; revealed the general reguliarition of diffusion and distribution of pollutants in the sea; for known state of speed and direction of wind on the surface of sea and heat current of sea surface were worked out a polyemppric model for defining of upper quasi-uniform temperature layer.
Created unstationary model on the interaction of sea and atmosphere for known state of known direction of wind speed on the surface of sea;
In a large diapason was studied the influence of changeability of hydrophysical parameters of the pollutants diffusion in Caspia;
In different hydrometeorological conditions taking into account of morphometry of day and configuration of coastal line was worked out a physico-geographical model of diffusion of pollutants; Studying the reason of level changes, determining the degree of influence of affecting factors on it, is given long term prognosis of its first approaching.
Compiled and published a complex hydrometeorological atlas of the Caspian Sea. Investigated the time and space of distribution of pollutants of the Caspian Sea; Studied the geomorphology of coasts of bottom in different state of level; Estimated the social-economic damages in Azerbaijan coastal zone as a result of level rising.
Last years the department was participant and head of about 10 international projects concerning to the Caspian Sea, received some grants from international funds.